||Life Cycle Assessment of UV-lacquers and Comparison of Three Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods
||Dreyer, Louise Camilla (Innovation and Sustainability, Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark)
||Technical University of Denmark, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
||Present Master Thesis is divided into two parts. Part One consists of a comparative life cycle assessment of two UV lacquers from Akzo Nobel Industrial Wood Coatings A/S carried out using the ISO 14 Standard for goal and scope definition and inventory processing and the EDIP method for impact assessment. Part Two of the thesis consists of a comparison of three life cycle impact assessment methods: the EDIP (1997) method, the CML (2001) method and the Eco-indicator 99 method. The LCA performed in Part One is used as a case study for the comparison in Part Two.
The functional unit defined in the LCA is decoration and protection of a kitchen cabinet door in 20 years. The two lacquers chosen for the LCA is a waterborne UV lacquer and an UV Top lacquer. The lacquers can be considered interchangeable in respect to the service defined in the functional unit. The result of the LCA indisputably showed that the life cycle of the UV WB lacquer result in larger environmental impacts than the UV Top lacquer. This result is due to the large difference in magnitude of the applied amounts needed in order to fulfill the functional unit.
The environmental profiles of the lacquers obtained in the impact assessment are characterised by several large impact potentials of the same order of magnitude. The production of a major ingredient in the UV WB lacquer has shown to have significantly effect on the global warming impact potential and on generation of radioactive waste. Furthermore the emission of solvents in the Use stage has shown to have large influence on the photochemical ozone formation potential and the human toxicity potential especially for the UVWB lacquer due to the larger amount of solvents in the lacquer. The Disposal route in this LCA is modelled as incineration because the LCA is delimited to take place in Denmark. This choice has shown to be significant for the overall result for both lacquers as emission of NOx from the incineration process contributes significantly to the acidification and nutrient enrichment impacts of the life cycles. For the UV
Top lacquer the large energy consumption in the Use stage results in energy related impacts such as global warming.
The comparison of between the CML and EDIP method has shown that there is little difference in the characterisation modelling and available characterisation factors for the impact categories: global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification and nutrient enrichment and photochemical ozone formation. The results obtained using the two methods are almost the same at category indicator point. Large differences is however encountered in the human toxicity and ecotoxicity categories, where very different contributors are pointed out by the two methods.
The normalised results reached with the CML method are significantly larger than those reached with the EDIP method for all impact potentials except human toxicity. This difference in normalised results arise because smaller normalisation references are used by the CML method than by the EDIP method for all impact potentials except for nutrient enrichment, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The normalisation references for the three latter impact potentials are not comparable for the two methods. The normalisation references for the two methods are different because the methods do not use the same spatial scales and reference years.
The differences of the weighted results reached with the EDIP method in Part One and Part Two, show that calculation of extra characterisation factors in Part One has an impact on the environmental profile.
The results reached with the Eco-indicator method shows that this method also point the UV WB lacquer out as having larger environmental impacts than the UV Top lacquer. In the comparison with the EDIP method a disagreement of which emissions are important can be seen. The Ecoindicator point out the emission of NOx in the disposal stage as a major contributor.
An overall conclusion is that all three methods agree on the fact that the lifecycle of the UV WB lacquer contributes to larger environmental impacts than that of the UV Top lacquer when lacquering of a kitchen cabinet door is considered.
Creation date: 2006-06-22
Update date: 2009-04-02