||The purpose of this research is to assess the integration between cleaner production and occupational health and safety in the selected industries in Nepal. The industries selected for the purpose were the participants of the intervention programme called ¡¥cleaner production and occupational health and safety in industries¡¦, one of the programme components of Danida supported environment Sector Programme Support, ESPS in Nepal.
The majority of the participating industries in the programme have been SMEs. Their resource crunch, the general perception on OHS as a cost centre without economically measurable benefits and an annexation to environmental efforts are some of the rationales behind the study.
The study explores two avenues of integration. First is the exploration into what has been achieved in relation to bringing simultaneous improvement in both the cleaner production and occupational health and safety arenas. Second is the assessment on how these integrations have been achieved and the possibilities that exist in the future. The study covered two dairies and two metal industries.
The study comprised of theoretical outline and analytical assessment. The theoretical outline formed the basis of applicable theory to the study. The analytical assessment comprised of data collection, assimilation of data and analysis. This pertained to general data on the programme and process of intervention and data on case companies. Semi structured interview and written documents were the main sources of data.
The development of the elements of local theory - elements of causal relation and elements of action along the four elements of organizational development ¡V tools, structures, tasks and actors have been identified as the analytical approach to be applied for the assessment of integration. Possibilities of two discourses of integration have been identified as ¡V technical integration and strategic integration. These identifications were in correspondence with the immediate objectives of ¡¥pollution and reduction and improved OHS¡¦ and expected output of ¡¥developed capacity in industries¡¦ of the intervention. For this development of the elements of local theory along tools have been taken as indicating technical integration and that along the structures, tasks and actors indicating strategic integration. The organizational learning was explored the possibilities for existence of integration in the company operations in future.
The study has revealed that the development and understanding of the elements of local theory is taking place in relation to the tools only and is absent in relation to structure, actors and tasks - possible technical integration. Further, technical integration is observed to be taking place even without organizational learning. This is attributed to the inputs to the process such as methods, roles and strategies of the process and consultants. The companies, which have indicated to carry the CP/OHS activities into the future, a possible strategic integration, are the ones observed to be facilitating organizational learning.
Based on the findings the study draws the conclusions that:
? Integration of cleaner production and occupational health and safety should be initiated from the methodology level of intervention process during the training.
? A positive incentive for the implementation of improvements addressing twin problems could effectively promote technical integration.
? Consultants as change makers should shift their focus from emphasis on visible changes to more capacity development within the participating organizations. This would ensure a balance between the technical and strategic integration so that immediate improvements are realised but at the same time preventing the whole process becoming a one-time event.
Keywords: integration, local theory. Organizational learning, teams.