||The last decade’s companies more and more have come to realize that the choices they make have an influence on the environment as well. In this case a C-class containership from A. P. Moller – Maersk is analyzed from cradle to grave. The analysis concerns all aspects of a ship lifecycle, from the first stage as raw materials, to manufacturing of the ship, through the usage stage and finally the disposal stage. The impacts include all the emissions to the environmental, toxicity, waste and resource consumption. The analysis will furthermore identify and verify where in the lifecycle the main environmental impact potentials are and clarify that the excising environmental reduction initiatives correspond to this.
The tools that are used to do the LCA from cradle to grave are the EDIP ’03 procedure and the SimaPro 7.1 software. These two tools were used to evaluate the vessel. The EDIP ’03 is the methodology that is used for conducting the LCA. The SimaPro 7.1 software is used to build and analyze the model that was made of the case according to the EDIP methodology.
The C-class containership is operated worldwide and the impact is as well worldwide. The yearly consumption is 50.000t of HFO. Other large consumption occurs in the manufacturing stage when the ship is produced, mainly the steel consumption. The scope of the project starts at the point where the raw materials are extracted like steel and the materials are assembled to the final product, the c-class containership. In the usage stage the consumption of the materials when operating of the vessel is taken into account, such as HFO, chemicals, paint and L. O. The final scope is the disposal of the ship where the recycling values are taken into account. When all the above mentioned objects are taken into account the complete LCA from cradle to grave can be performed.
The largest consumption is HFO and occurs during operation of the vessel and this can be linked to the large impact on all environmental impact, toxicities and waste categories. The HFO is burned in the vessel engines and occur in the usage stage.
The largest emission from the HFO is the NOx which occurs in most of the environmental impact categories and is by far the worst of all emissions.
The impact from SOx happens in the acidification category and is the second largest contributor from HFO in the environmental impact categories.
CO2 is only a concern for Global warming potential and the impact from CO2 is from the burning of HFO when operating the engines in the usage stage. The impact from CO2 is the third largest impact from the ship.
There is a large impact to the toxicity impact categories from HFO. The impact to Human toxicity to soil occurs at the refinery process and the main contributor is the VOC. It is important to notice that the VOC is not in the burning process of the HFO when operating the vessel. The emission is a non-combustion emission from feedstock handling/storage, petroleum products processing, product storage/handling and flaring and occur in the material stage.
All other impacts from extracting of materials, manufacturing of the vessel and disposal of the vessel are very low compared to the impact from the HFO and its emissions. Other impact worth mentioning is the chemicals used during operation of the vessel which has some influences on the toxicities. Also the applying of the paint has some impacts, but there are some uncertainties about the impacts and a further investigation of this subject has to be performed.
Concerning the resources there are a impact from the HFO consumption which is relatively small compared with the other impacts from the HFO.
When producing the steel for the vessel, there are several metals which have a limited resource. Especially molybdenum and nickel, which are used for the quality and strength of the steel, are limited factors. This impact occurs in the material stage.
The analyse shows that there are a clear picture of that the consumption of HFO and the emissions thereof has the significant largest impact of all impact from the c-class containership.
There would be a great potential for reducing the environmental impact, if a reduction of HFO consumption or emissions was possible or even better to switch to another source of energy for the propulsion of the vessel. At least if the source is more environmentally friendly. However, it is very difficult to switch to another sort of propulsion power, because the HFO is cheap compared to other fuel types and there is easy access worldwide to the large amount of HFO that is needed for the propulsion power.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the source are right as far as there are no better solution that comes in such a large amount, that is possible to fulfill the power requirement of the ship. But a reduction of the emissions from HFO is required. The large effort to fulfill environmentally friendly propulsion power is in progress, and the aim is to have cleaner fuel and to develop emission abatement technologies to clean the emissions from burning of the HFO.
The results that were found during the LCA were subjected to a sensitivity analysis and from this, the conclusion can be drawn that despite the high level of uncertainty in some data the results of the LCA are valid. The changes in these uncertain data should be extremely high to change the ranking of the options for the impact categories. The sensitivity analysis treated as well a scenario concerning the recycling of materials in the disposal stage. The analysis confirmed that the recycling of 97% of the material onboard is of outmost importance. Just a small deviation of the recycled materials had a large impact on all the environmental impact categories.
An oil spill scenario was performed to clarify how much impact a oil spill of 200t would have on the marine life.
The impact of an oil spill to the ocean occurs in the Ecotoxicity water Chronic and acute.
The impact of the oil spill will affect marine life greatly even that the oil spill of 200t are relatively small compared with the consumption of HFO and other materials used doing the life of the ship.
Therefore the conclusion of the oil spill scenario is that oil spill should be prevented at any cost.
Beside the impact from the vessel this Life Cycle Assessment should be investigated to see if it was suitable in the shipping industry. The result speaks for itself, a LCA is usable when analyzing environmental impact caused by ships.
Perspective of Ballast water
The expansion and volume of transportation has expanded over the last decades. This is a concern for the ballast water which is used for adjusting and trimming the ships for optimal steering and propulsion. The issue is that the ballast water is often from ports and coastal areas which are rich on plankton and other marine organism. The ballast water is then discharged in other regions across the world and can cause undesirable organism to be transported between different marine ecosystems. The impact on these marine ecosystems could be very interesting to investigate in a LCA perspective.
Perspective of Work environment
The work environment is dealing with work related diseases and damages which occur during the work. The work environment in EDIP is based on statistic from the Danish statistical information and is a new methodology. It is possible to establish a figure for working environmental impacts per produced unit.
Therefore it could be very interesting to perform a work environmental analysis from the already existing LCA of the C-class vessels.
Perspective of comparison of different ship types
It could be very interesting to analyze other classes of ships from the Maersk fleet. The analysis would light up if it is preferable to build larger or smaller ships in the environmentally perspective.
Perspective of comparison of different transport types
It could be very interesting to analyze which transport form that is preferable beside the ships. It is a known issue that transport by ship is by far the most environmentally friendly way.
Perspective of HCFC gasses
The HCFC gasses should be investigated because it is not treated in this LCA because of lack of information. A analyze of the HCFC gasses in a LCA way could clear up which impact the gasses has on the environment.
Perspective of Paint (Silicone or biocide)
It could be very interesting to compare the performance from the different paints (Biocides and Silicone coating) with the fuel oil consumptions in an LCA way. The issue is that the performance is different on the Biocide based coating and the silicone based coating. The performance of the silicone based coating is falling in the last years between the dry-dockings compared with the biocide based coating which obtain a better friction between the dry-dockings. The result is that there is a greater HFO consumption in the last part of the silicone based coating. In additional to the biocide based coating which are more toxic than the silicone.
This automatically leads to investigate the impact further from the paint in this LCA.
Perspective of NOx and SOx at open sea or coastal area
An issue which is not dealt with in this LCA is which impact there is from NOx and SOx when the ship is at open sea compared with the ship which is close to coastal areas. Most of the time the vessel are at sea and the emissions do not affect local. Does this have an influence on the result?