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Title Implementation and design of hybrid energy systems in remote areas
Author Stenby, Jakob (Risø National Laboratory, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark)
Sørensen, Martha Katrine
Supervisor Elmegaard, Brian (Termiske Energisystemer, Institut for Mekanisk Teknologi, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark)
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard (Innovation og Bæredygtighed, Institut for Planlægning, Innovation og Ledelse, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark)
Bindner, Henrik W. (Afdelingen for Vindenergi, Risø Nationallaboratoriet for Bæredygtig Energi, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A. (Afdelingen for Systemanalyse, Risø Nationallaboratoriet for Bæredygtig Energi, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark)
Institution Technical University of Denmark, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Thesis level Master's thesis
Year 2006
Abstract The purpose of this thesis has been to examine of the utilisation of hybrid energy systems for villages in remote areas of Namibia. In this project the hybrid energy system is considered to contain PV panels, batteries, power converter and diesel generators. To fulfil the purpose four sub-purposes has been defined; identification of general guidelines to the implementation process, modelling and design of a hybrid energy system, determination of criteria for implementation of hybrid energy systems and discussion of barriers towards dissemination of hybrid energy systems in Namibia. With basis of empirical data from Gobabeb Research and Training Centre a case study of an implementation process of a hybrid energy technology has been conducted. The theoretical framework of the analysis consisted of domestication theory, actor network theory and de-scription theory. The socio-technical analysis has revealed that the technology in different ways was not utilised as intended. This analysis did lead to an identification of some general guidelines for the implementation process. Concepts as communication with, involvement of and capacity development of end-users and professional users were among other included in the general guidelines. The modelling consisted of a model which determine the system performance and an economy model which predicts the economy of the hybrid energy system. The performance model has been made in the modelling tool Hybrid2 and was primarily based on measured data from the hybrid energy system installed at Gobabeb Research and Training Centre. The economic model was based on a spreadsheet and it used the outputs from the Hybrid2 model. With the basis from the modelling of the system at Gobabeb a model of a hybrid energy system to be implemented in a remote village has been made. The modelling has been used to both propose an economically optimal design of a hybrid energy system for the village as well as the economic feasibility of the system has been assessed. Some general conclusions could be drawn from the result of the assessment: it is with the present conditions not economical feasible to implement a loan financed hybrid energy system. In return if the capital cost of the system is externally funded of e.g. development aid it is a better economical solution than an energy system only based on diesel generators. Moreover a hybrid energy system will be less dependent on varying diesel fuel prices. By discussing hybrid energy systems in Namibia the implementation guidelines and the modelling has been put into perspective. A discussion of the criteria in order to implement a hybrid energy system in a village is related to the local society. Evaluation of barriers towards the dissemination of hybrid energy systems is closely linked to the national society.
Abstract Formålet med dette speciale har været at undersøge anvendelsen af hybride energisystemer i landsbyer i afsides egne af Namibia. I dette speciale inkluderer hybride energisystemer PV paneler, batterier, power konverter og dieselgeneratorer. Fire underformål er defineret for at opfylde overordnede formål; identificering af generelle retningslinjer for implementeringsprocessen, modellering og design af et hybridt energistem, bestemmelse af kriterier for implementeringen af hybride energysystemer og diskussion af barrierer for udbredelsen af hybride energisystemer i Namibia. På baggrund af emperiske data fra Gobabeb Research and Training Centre er der udført et case studie af implementeringsprocessen af et hybridt energisystem. Den teoretiske ramme for analysen inkluderer domesticeringsteori, aktørnetværksteori og deskriberingsteori. Den sociotekniske analyse har vist at teknologien på forskellige måder ikke var anvendt efter intensionen. Analysen førte til identificering af generelle retningslinjer for implementeringsprocessen. Koncepter som kommunikation med, involvering af og kapacitetsopbygning af slutbrugere og professionelle brugere var blandt andre inkluderet i de generelle retningslinjer. Modelleringen består af en model, som bestemmer systemdriften og en økonomimodel, som forudser økonomien af det hybride energy system. Driftsmodellen er lavet i simuleringværktøjet Hybrid2, og det er primært baseret på målte data af det hybride energisystem, der er installeret på Gobabeb Research and Training Centre. Økonomimodellen er baseret på et regneark og anvender resultater fra Hybrid2. Med basis i modelleringen af Gobabeb’s energisystem er der lavet en model af et hybridt energysystem til implementering i en afside landsby. Modelleringen er anvendt til både at foreslå et økonomisk optimalt design af et hybridt energysystem for landsbyen og til undersøgelse af den økonomiske gennemførlighed. Nogle generelle konklusioner kan trækkes frem fra resultatet af undersøgelsen; det er med de nuværende betingelser ikke praktisabelt at implementere et lånefinancieret hybridt energisystem. På den anden side hvis kapitalomkostninger af systemet er eksternt financieret af fx udviklingsbistand, resulterer det i en bedre økonomisk løsning end for et energisystem, der kun er baseret på diesel generatorer. Derudover vil et hybridt energysystem være mindre afhængigt af varierende brændselspriser. Ved at diskutere implementeringen af hybride energisystemer i Namabia er retningslinjer og modelleringsresultater blevet perspektiveret. En diskussion af kriterier for implementering af hybride energisystemer i en landsby relaterer sig til det lokale samfund. Evaluering af barrierer for udbredelsen af hybride energisystemer er knyttet til det nationale samfund.
Imprint Technical University of Denmark (DTU) : Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Keywords Hybrid Energy Systems; Renewable Energy; Off Grid Electrification; Minigrid; Energy System Modelling; Design of Hybrid Energy Systems
Fulltext
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Admin Creation date: 2009-11-05    Update date: 2012-02-10    Source: dtu    ID: 252017    Original MXD